Research article


Abbas Ahmed Ali Al-Shuwaili 1* May Naji Al Khanaq 2, Wassan Hamza Mazal 3

Online First: December 07, 2022

Cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp. It is a zoonotic disease that is the most prevalent. Thus, the study was conducted to evaluate the anti-cryptosporidiosis efficacy of alcoholic and aqueous Spirulina algae extracts in comparison with azithromycin in laboratory mice. Stool samples were collected from patients attending in Al-Kut Hospital suffering from diarrhea from November 1, 2021 to February 29, 2022, and 124 samples were examined for both sexes microscopic by using the modified Ziehl-Nelson Stain to detect infected the parasite's oocysts , Isolation and purification by flotation with Scheither's sugar solution and preserved in potassium dichromate for the purpose of using it in causing infection in laboratory mice. The experimental study was conducted on groups of 57 mice by oral administration of parasite oocysts within the range of 104 oocyst / ml except for the negative control group that was drenched with physiological saline. The feces of mice inoculated with oocysts of parasites were microscopically examined using the modified Ziehl-Nelson Stain, as well as the molecular examination was conducted using Multiplex PCR technique. After the mice were divided into five groups with the uninfected and untreated group kept as a healthy negative control. The first group which included 21 mice was treated after it was divided into three subgroups A, B, C for each secondary group 7 mice they were treated with alcoholic extract of Spirulina at different concentrations 50, 100, 150 mg/ml on the respectively, while the second group which included 21 mice on three groups A, B, and C was treated with aqueous extract of Spirulina at the previous concentrations for three consecutive days for each concentration. The third group was treated with azithromycin at a concentration of 500 ml, and the positive control group remained infected with the parasite and was not treated. After treatment a microscopic examination was performed by evaluating the excretion average of parasite oocysts using a hematocytometer slide. There was a decrease in the shedding of fecal oocysts in the groups treated with alcoholic extract at different concentrations, reaching a complete stop when treating with the highest concentrations at the end of the treatment period. Where, the average of shedding of fecal parasite oocysts of groups of mice at concentrations 50, 100, 150 mg/ml reached 1.132, 487, 0 oocyst/ml respectively. The groups treated with the aqueous extract also showed a clear decrease in the shedding of fecal oocysts, as the average reached the three concentrations 50, 100, 150 mg/ml to 2.58, 1.45, 621 oocyst/ml respectively, while the avrage of shedding of oocysts in the group treated with azithromycin reached 0 oocyst/ml in comparison with the infected positive control group in which the number of oocysts continued to increase to 14.863 oocyst/ml at the end of the treatment period. The results of the therapeutic efficacy of spirulina alga extracts showed percentages of 92%, 97%, 100% for the alcoholic extract at concentrations 50, 100, 150 mg/ml, respectively, and percentages were recorded at 82%, 90%, 96% for the aqueous extract at concentrations 50, 100, 150 mg/ml, while the therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin reached 100% at the end of the treatment period.


Cryptosporidium spp., Spirulina Extract, Azithromycin