Research article


Ali Faleh Faisal and Hassan Hadi Hamza

Online First: December 07, 2022

A field experiment was conducted in Babylon province, Al-Mussaib project during the summer season of 2020. The study included two levels of NPK mineral fertilization (without fertilization, mineral fertilization) and according to the recommended for fertilizing the sunflower crop and two levels of organic fertilization (without organic fertilization, organic fertilization) at an average 6 kg of decomposed sheep manure for each experimental unit before planting and three levels of biological fertilization (without fertilization, bio fertilization soaking seeds, injecting the soil with biomaterial) (Bio Halth). Where the seeds were soaked and mixed well with bio fertilizer before cultivation for the second level, as well as the plants were injected with bio fertilizer after germination for the third level, The seeds were sown on June 1, 2020, American Flame cultivar, originating on a furrow, with a distance of 75 cm between one furrow and another, and 25 cm between a pit and another .To know the effect of mineral, organic and biological fertilization on some physical properties of soil, the one replicate included 12 treatments distributed randomly on the experimental plot. The number of the experimental plot was 36 panels with dimensions of 3 x 4 m, leaving intervals between sectors 2 m and between the experimental units 1m. Soil samples were taken from the field at the harvest stage. Samples of field soil were taken before cultivation, at a depth of 0-30 cm, and mixed well with each other to homogenize them and make a compound sample of them, and then they were air-dried and crushed and passed through a sieve with a capacity of 2 mm and a part of them was taken for laboratory analyzes to know some of the physical properties of the study soil before cultivation. The results of the experiment showed that there were significant differences between the averages of the studied traits in the presence of the mineral, organic and biological fertilization process. Organic fertilization gave the best averages, as it reached 50.45%, 1.32 g/cm3, 24.44 mm, and 1.26 mm for the traits of concentration, porosity, bulk density, soil aggregate stability, and average Mean weight diameter compared to the control treatments which amounted to 43.71%, 1.51 g/cm3, 13.15 mm and 0.88 mm respectively .As for the biological fertilization, it gave the best averages for the water conductivity, which amounted to 11.51 cm.h-1, compared to the control treatment, which amounted to 9.10 cm.h-1. The bi-interactions were significant for all soil properties, and the bi-interaction between mineral and organic fertilizers gave the best averages in most soil characteristics, which amounted to 1.40 mm and 1.24 g/cm3 for the weighted diameter average and bulk density, respectively, while the mineral and biological fertilizers gave the best average in the porosity that amounted to 52.56%. As for the organic fertilization with the biological, it gave the best average in the bulk density trait, as it reached 1.24 g/cm3, and the triple interaction was significant for all traits.


mineral, organic fertilization, soil physical traits