Research article


Jaison Paul1*, Aishwarya G.1, Balarama Swamy Yadav P.2, Pradip Kumar K.1 and Rema Shree A. B.1

Online First: November 15, 2022

Small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton.) often referred to as the ‘queen of spices’ is a perennial, rhizomatous plant belongs to the monocotyledonous family Zingiberaceae. It is believed to have originated in the moist evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of South India. Several varieties of small cardamom were released by various Research Institutes and Universities. Besides, several superior clones were developed by farmers (landraces). Even though more than twenty five popular landraces of small cardamom, only few are registered. The present study was conducted at Indian Cardamom Research Institute (ICRI),Spices Board, Myladumpara, Idukki Dt. of Kerala, to assess the performance of nine elite landraces of small cardamom, which were awarded by National Innovation Foundation (NIF), Govt. of India. A trial with RBD design was laid out in the research farm of ICRI incorporating nine treatments and a control, to study the performance evaluation of the different farmer’s varieties in the cardamom tract of Idukki Dist. Planting materials of the seven clones (Njallani Green Gold, Thiruthali, Panikulangara Green Bold No.1, Wonder Cardamom, Elarajan, Arjun and Pappalu) were selected from Idukki District and two varieties (PNS Vaigai and Pachaikkai) from Theni District of Tamil Nadu for this study. ICRI-5, the first man made hybrid released by Indian Cardamom Research Institute was used as control. The selected landraces were evaluated in the field for three consecutive years and the data on growth and yield were recorded, pooled and analyzed. From the analysis, it was found that the genotype Njallani Green Gold performed well compared to other varieties with respect to the yield (1271.80 kg/ha) followed by Panikulangara Green Bold No.1 (1134.67 kg/ha) and also more tillers (74.46) were found in the clone. The plant height was significantly higher in Elarajan (316.24 cm), followed by Panikulangara Green Bold No.1 (312.45 cm). No. of leaves were greater in Elarajan (16.72), followed by Panikulangara Green Bold No.1 (16.43). More vegetative buds were observed in the clone Pappalu followed by Wonder Cardamom. Panicles per clump were more in Thiruthali (47.98), followed by Njallani Green Gold (46.59). Racemes per panicle were greater in Pachaikkai (26.57), followed by Njallani Green Gold (26.19). No. of capsules per racemes were more in Njallani Green Gold (9.59) followed by Panikulangara Green Bold No.1 (8.59). The results pointed out that each clone in the trial differs from another with respect to the characters studied. The findings of the evaluation could be used for further breeding studies in small cardamom.


farmer's varieties, cardamom, landraces, evaluation