Research article


Nameer A. Dawood1,2 and Zainab Ismail Ibrahim1

Online First: December 30, 2022

The prepared vaccines are made to resemble the infectious agent that causes the disease, which is frequently created from one of the killed or attenuated microbes, their toxins, or their surface proteins and administered by mouth, injection, or nasal spray to stimulate the immune system and recognize the foreign agents in order to eliminate them. The aim of the current study was to augment the immune response by using killed vaccines prepared from live, virulent Proteus mirabilis. Forty adult mice were divided into four groups, each with ten mice: G1 and G2 (n = 10) mice were immunized with PFKAgs 0.2 ml S/C at two doses separated by 14 days, then G2 mice were challenged with virulent bacteria (Proteus mirabilis 1 x 106 CFU/ml) S/C, and G3 served as a positive control infected with Proteus mirabilis (1 x 106 CFU/ml) S/C. On day 28, animals in Group 1 were sacrificed. On day 30, animals in the other groups (G2, G3, and G4) were sacrificed to measure IgG and IL-1 levels and study histopathology. When compared to the positive and control groups, the results of the immune response study revealed significant values of IgG and IL-1 in immunized mice and increased in challenged group in the prevention of an inflammatory reaction. The predominant histological lesions were mononuclear cell aggregations perivascular or in focal aggregations in the liver and lungs, as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen. Conclusion: The efficacy of killed antigens in protection even prevents virulent pathogen-induced inflammation.


Proteus mirabilis, IgG, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), mice and immunopathology.