Research article


Sarah Zghair Hussein , Ghada Mohammed Saleh

Online First: April 25, 2023

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity as epidemics due to their increased occurrence. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), the most prevalent type of DM in the world, is etiopathogenetically linked to obesity, as are many of its complications. Additionally, there is growing scientific evidence for the connection between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and obesity and overweight. Obesity is a condition marked by an abnormally high level of adipose tissue in the body as well as an increase in the production of adipokines, which are biologically active. Increased amounts of pro-inflammatory adipokines (Leptin) and consequently lower levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines are carried on by excessive proliferation of this tissue (adiponectin). Aims of this study: This study aimed to investigate the link between body mass index (BMI) and diabetic microvascular problems as well as the concentration of serum leptin and adiponectin in diabetes mellitus patients. Material and method: Clinical specimens were collected from 140 patients with diabetes (serum and blood), at Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in (Samawa/ Iraq) and Medical city/Baghdad Hospital and private clinics in (Baghdad/ Iraq) from 9/1/2022 to 15/7/2022. Weight (kg), height (cm), BMI (kg/cm), random blood sugar, serum adiponectin and leptin concentration was assessed in 140 with diabetes and 70 healthy controls. The diabetic patients were classified depending on the type of diabetes and according to sex into male group and female group, use of oral hypoglycemic medication or insulin, mean duration of diabetes Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured by sandwich ELISA. Gene expression was performed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Random blood sugar for patients was 226.99 mg/dL. The results revealed that diabetic foot ulcers factors were: 93(66.4%) are male and the rest 47(33.6%) are females, high 79(56.40%) are within (31-60) year, 50 (35.7%) of patients with DFUs were current smoker, 55 (39.3%) were overweight, 131(93.6%) were T2DM, 62(44.3%) were of duration between (15-30) years, both drugs using were 55 (39.3%) were factors statically associated with diabetic foot ulcer (P value ˂ 0.05). The results also showed a significant increase in the levels of (leptin and adiponectin) in diabetic foot patients compared to the control serum group (P≤ 0.05). The result of the current study showed that there was a relation between DFUs and gene expression of adiponectin gene. Conclusion: Results of this study reported that found statistically relationship between age, sex, smoking, BMI, type of DM, DFUs grade, DM duration, DFUs duration and drugs using.


Diabetes Mellitus; Obesity; adipokines; leptin; adiponectin; Sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR.