Research article


Sarah Zghair Hussein a,*, Ghada Mohammed Saleh b

Online First: April 14, 2023

Diabetes foot ulcers are vascular complications of diabetes mellitus that have been widely reported to be very morbidity and mortality related. Interleukins are a subgroup of cytokines, a varied class of biological messenger molecules that influence cellular activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a key cytokine modulator of the acute-phase response, increases the development of acute-phase proteins in the liver and has activities that support diabetes. In addition, the recently identified pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-34 serves as a ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). Also, IL-34 plays a role in the development of numerous chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we aimed to examine the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and (IL)-34 in diabetic patients with diabetic foot and in healthy controls, from January to July 2022, admitted to Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Samawa/ Iraq, Medical city/Baghdad Hospital and private clinics in Baghdad/ Iraq. The study was performed on two groups. They were patients with diabetic foot that included 140 patients, their ages range (29-87) and healthy individuals (control) that included 70 patients, their ages range (18-57). Serum IL-6 and IL-34 levels were measured by sandwich ELISA. Diabetes biochemical parameter (random blood sugar) also analyzed. Random blood sugar for patients was 226.99 mg/dL. The results revealed that diabetic foot ulcers factors were: 93(66.4%) are male and the rest 47(33.6%) are females, high 79(56.40%) are within (31-60) year, 50 (35.7%) of patients with DFUs were current smoker, 55 (39.3%) were overweight, 131(93.6%) were type 2 DM, 62(44.3%) were of duration between (15-30) years, both drugs using were 55 (39.3%) were factors statically associated with diabetic foot ulcer (P value ˂ 0.05). The results also showed a significant increase in the levels of (IL-6 and IL-34) in diabetic foot patients compared to the control plasma group (P≤ 0.05).


Diabetic foot ulcer; Interleukin (IL) _6; (IL) _34 and Sandwich ELISA.