Research article


Ahmed Abdulmalk Fayyad*, Khalid Khazal Hummadi

Online First: March 30, 2023

In this work, locally and natural porcelanite rock (PC) investigated as an adsorbent media for Ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal from aqueous solutions in batch and continuous fluidized bed column. Using different techniques including FTIR, and XRD, SEM, and BET porcelain rock characterizations were performed. pH, contact time, initial antibiotic concentration, dosage, and particles size has been investigated in the batch mode system. FTIR analysis shows that the main function group of PC responsible for the adsorption mechanism was silanol-OH and Si-OH-Si. XRD analysis revealed that PC compound is mostly quartz. Surface morphology shows a wide variety of intragranular pores relatively to the high porosity of PC also, indicating high surface areas. PC have suitable surface area of 6.8402 m²/g, volume of Pore of 0.015319 (cm³/g), and Average pore diameter of 9.8129 (nm). In batch system mode the optimal parameters were; pH = 5. PC dose = 0.02 g/ml, particles size = 425 μm, and 120 min detention time. The removal efficiencies of CIP increased dramatically as the starting concentration increased and the best removal percent was 93.36% at 90 mg/l. Thermodynamic study state that there is no significant effect of temperature on the CIP adsorption. The negative value of ΔG represent the viability and spontaneity of adsorption process. Positive value of ΔH and ΔS indicated that the endothermic adsorption nature, and perfect affinity of adsorbate to adsorbent. Isotherm study state that the maximum adsorption capacity of CIP onto PC is 20.20977 mg/g. RL value (0˂RL˂1) state the adsorption is favorable process. Freundlich intensity (n˃1) suggested that the adsorption is preferential. Langmuir Model is the more fitted model that has the largest value of R2 of (0.98539). Second-order is the more fitted kinetic model to describe the adsorption behaver.


Adsorption · porcelanite rock · Ciprofloxacin · Isotherm· Kinetic.