Research article


Ravishankar, H.G1*., Madhuramozhi Govindharajalu2., and Panduranga Murthy, G3

Online First: October 29, 2022

In the present study, the nesting pattern and breeding behaviour of the Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis listed as endangered) was studied in Kokkare Bellur, Mandya district, Karnataka, the southern India during 2018 to 2020. The study area, Kokkare Bellur which is commonly known as “stork village” situated (12°13’N, 77°0’E) in Maddur taluk, Mandya district in southern part of India in the Karnataka state. Kokkare Bellur is a community biological reserve where there is harmonious relationship between man and birds. Intensive survey was carried-out in different locales of bird habitation at study area. The Spot-billed Pelicans were distributed in selected trees like, Tamarind tree, Banyan tree, Acacia tree, Portia tree respectively. The colonies were in close proximity and vicinity of the human settlements at village and close to roads. Very nearly, 85-90% of the breeding sites of pelicans in the trees, along the side of river Shimsha, dense area of biodiversity regions followed by the private growing near to their village houses or at the backyard, rest of them are in protected areas are observed. The nearest water source to the colony ranged from 1 km to 10 km; while the nearest foraging ground was from 5 km to 50 km. Over all in southern India, almost 75-80% of nests were built on the top canopy of the tree. The Spot-billed Pelican breeds between November and April at the Kokkare Bellur. Soon after few days of arrival, pelicans perform courtship display, form pairs, start nest construction and lay eggs. The courtship display is not as attractive and impressive as in other water birds. The clutch size varies from two to three eggs and the incubation period from 25 to 35 days. The fledgling period varies from a minimum of 90 to a maximum of 105 days. The nest success rate of the Spot-billed Pelican at Kokkare Bellur was 85.56% during the study period. The growth pattern after the birth of spot-billed pelican was constructively analysed by measuring the different parts of body taking 3 days as interval for 90 days in their nestlings. The data of the study was statistically analysed using Correlation coefficient approach. The correlation coefficient can be assessed by characterization, which is theoretically assuming any value in the interval between the range 0 to +1 (or) 0 to -1. *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlation coefficient (r) in independent value on days of growth vs dependant on Number of nestlings, Weight, Head Length, Bill Length, Bill Depth, Wing Length, Wing Span, Tarsus Length, Tail Length, Pouch, Body Length, Webbed feet. The nestling growth pattern was analysed which shows the number of days it requires to develop the morphological characters. The tall trees of the village (Ficus religiosa, Ficus bengalensis, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Thespecia populena) has provided safe and suitable place for spot-billed pelicans to build their nest to carry out feeding behaviour. In all, the nestling growth pattern help in understanding the morphological characters of Pelicans in the Kokkare Bellur area. The bird community will grow at large by predominantly opting different tree species adjoining the village in two tier format through nesting, breeding and foraging performance thereby; preventing as sort of human activities. In addition, the village community in Kokkare Bellur plays an imperative role in providing suitable habitation for nestling growth pattern and breeding behaviour respectively.


Nestling, Breeding pattern, Correlation coefficient, Spot-billed Pelican, Kokkare Bellur